Glossary of terms
Alternate:-The leaves are placed singly along the stem but not opposite each other. 
Anther:-The part of the stamen that produces pollen.
Appressed:-Lying flat against.
Axil:-The angle formed by the upper side of a leaf and the stem.
Berry:-A fleshy fruit (remaining closed when mature) with the seed or seeds surrounded by pulp.
Boss:-A raised part on a flat surface - a knob or a stud.
Calyx:-The outer, non-reproductive parts of a flower, composed of free or joined sepals.
Capsule:-A dry fruit, opening naturally when mature, formed from an ovary with joined carpels.
Catkin:-A spike-like, hanging group of single sex flowers (either male or female) without petals.
Compound Leaf:- When the blade of a leaf is divided into two or more separate leaflets, each with its own stalk, the leaf is said to be compound. The leaflets themselves are not leaves and this is shown by the absence of buds in their axils. The whole leaf can be pulled off as one, leaving a well-defined scar on the stem.
Cone:-The reproductive structure of Coniferous trees (which have bare seeds ie. not enclosed in an ovary).
Coniferous:-A plant bearing cones.
Coppice:-Trees or shrubs which are cut to ground level every few years and then regrow from the stumps into a clump of  stems.
Deciduous:-Trees and shrubs that lose their leaves in autumn.
Dioecious:-Where there are only male OR female flowers on the same plant. Compare this with Monoecious.
Ebony:-A tropical hardwood species of tree, often used for carving, with black heart wood and light brown outer wood.
Entomologist:-A person who studies insects.
Evergreen:-Trees and shrubs which keep most of their leaves throughout the year.
Fertile:-Able to reproduce sexually.
Fissure:-A cleft or crack.
Gall:-An abnormal growth of tissue formed in response by the tree to an attack by certain insects, fungi, bacteria etc
Gall-mite:-A small arachnid (a small animal with 8, jointed limbs) found in a gall.
Gland:-An organ producing a secretion.
Groyne:-A projecting (often wooden) structure to stop sand shifting along a beach.
Hybrid:-A plant resulting from a cross between two or more plants, genetically unlike e.g. a cross between two species in the same genus (or even in different genera) eg Wild Plum
Inflorescence:-The arrangement of flowers on the floral stem; a flower cluster.
Larva:-An insect in the stage between egg and pupa.
Leaflet:-The leaf-like part of a compound leaf.
Lenticel:-A pore in the stem that allows gases to pass between the outside atmosphere and the interior of the plant 
Linear:-A leaf which is more than twice as long as it is broad and is over 5mm across (e.g. the leaves of Grey Willow )
Loam:-A rich soil of clay, sand and organic matter.
Lobed:-Leaves which are divided into segments with spaces between which do not reach the centre. (There is no hard and fast distinction between lobes and large teeth. See the page of lobed leaves )
Midrib:-The middle and principle vein of a leaf. 
Monoecious:-Where there are both male and female flowers on the same plant. Compare with Dioecious.
Mucro:-A short straight point e.g.Yew. 
Naturalised:-A plant which is thoroughly established after introduction from another region
Needle:-A leaf which is at least 7 times as long as it is broad and less than 4mm across. e.g.Austrian Pine
Opposite:-Leaves which are placed along a stem in pairs, one on each side.
Palmate:-A leaf which is arranged like the fingers of a hand i.e. arising from approximately the same point and spreading outwards.e.g. the leaves of Horse-chestnut. 
Pinnate:-A leaf with separate leaflets along each side of a common stalk.  (The leaflets may be alternate or opposite.)
Pollard:-To cut a tree 2.5-4m above the ground to produce a close rounded head of young branches.
Pubescent:-Covered with a soft down.
Roundish:-A leaf which is less than twice as long as it is broad.
Scale:-A small leaf, usually paper-like, and often found covering buds, bulbs and corms.
Simple leaf:-A leaf of one piece 
Spiny leaf:-A leaf which is a sharp woody or hardened spike e.g. Gorse. 
Stamen:-One of the male sex organs on a flower, usually consisting of anther and filament.
Sterile:-Unable to reproduce sexually.
Stigma:-The tip of the style, usually enlarged, on which the pollen grains land and germinate.
Stipule:-A leafy outgrowth, often one of a pair, situated at the base of the leaf stalk.
Striae:-Fine, longitudinal lines, grooves or ridges for example on or under bark.
Style:-The often long, top part of the female sex organs that has the stigma at its tip.
Sucker:-A shoot which grows from underground.
Tannin:-An acidic substance, soluble in water, with a bitter taste, that is present in a number of plants, especially in the bark of Quercus (Oak).
Trifoliate:-A compound leaf with three leaflets eg Laburnum.
Topiary:-The art of clipping shrubs etc. into ornamental shapes e.g. Box and Yew.
Tubular:-Cylindrical and hollow.
Vascular bundle:-One of the strands of tissue that carry water and nutrients within the plant, consisting of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside, separated by a layer of cambium. 
Vein:-A strand of vascular tissue in a leaf or other flat organ.