are rigid, needle-like and short,
only 1.2-3 cm long. They are arranged in two rows, the lower spreading
horizontally, the upper, shorter and pointing upwards. They are notched
at the tip, dark shining green above and with two white stripes below.
They are attached to the stem and leave a circular scar when they fall.
Fir is an introduced,
evergreen tree, up to 60m in
height, with smooth grey bark which is scaly on old trees. It is planted
as an ornamental tree and thrives particularly in Scottish Highland
are cylindrical, 10-14 cm long: they stand erect on top of the branches.
are made of woody scales and there
are bracts which project between them with their tips turned down.
of the cones fall at the same time
as the seeds in autumn leaving a bare stalk.
are often attacked by aphids, which can badly damage or kill the
tree, hence they are rarely grown for timber in Britain.
The wood is
soft, light and free from resin. It is used for furniture and box-making.
Large old trees
have unmistakable, gaunt 'crow's-nests' at the top, held high above